It is very important for general practitioners to realize that extreme air cryotherapy is the most powerful method in physiotherapy and it cannot be interpreted as cold therapy in the traditional sense.
First, in his phylogenesis,a man has never faced such superlow temperatures,and apparently, the mechanisms to monitor such temperatures are absent. Second, the speed of heat abduction from the body surface is so stressfully incredible, that it makes the body respond totally and not only through the thermoregulatory system, but with all the adaptive mechanisms, including hypothalamic-hypophysial-adrenal, immune, endocrine and other systems.
The short-time exposure to extremely low temperatures, without disrupting the energy and functional mechanisms of the body, is a kind of training for all the sections of physiological stage of stress and alerts all physiological resources of the body.
The attending medical doctor should be aware that assigning highest objectives to the ACT, he also confronts with the patient's psycho-emotional problems. Though short-time, the procedure is found extremely uncomfortable by many patients because of incredibly high speed of heat abduction from the body, especially from the whole body surface.
The objective tendency to intensive expansion of nosological range of ACT application is proved by reliable, universal therapeutic efficiency, placing the ACT to one of the foremost positions in the most of directions of applied medicine.
Aircryotherapy (ACT) is the most efficient way for rendering first aid to victims, because it allows discontinuing quickly the temperature agent effect and thus considerably decreases tissues heating, which results in minimizing tissue necrosis.
The cooling of burn wounds promotes improvement of microcirculation, reducing of pain sense, plasma loss and tissue edema. The cooling is also adopted for treatment of later stages after getting burnt. ACT may be necessary at later terms, in the first place, for the wounds with weak granulations being prepared for plastic closing. This ensures decreased granulations edema, their flattening and drying. The ACT is used for burns of all degrees.
Used for treatment of bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic pneumoniait it is reccomended general ACT session of 180 sec. long, 25-30 sessions, once per day. In case of bronchial asthma the patient should undergo up to 3-5 courses, with 1 to 3-months interval between the courses.
ACT is useful in treatment of sterility, miscarriages, climactic syndrome, endometriosis, in pregnancy planning but also to prevent toxicosis.
It is reccomanded ACT session of 120-180 sec. long, 25 sessions, once per day or every second day; number of courses 3 to 5, with 2 to 3-month interval between the courses.
The basic factors of life sustaining activity are metabolism and energy exchange. All the proteins, fats and carbohydrates in the body are converted in the process of assimilation and dissimilation. Their biological importance lies in the fact that while the substances are broken down the energy contained in them is released thus ensuring all the body functions.
The alteration of liver texture and loss of normal liver cells results in the liver inability to synthesize proteins and other substances necessary for the body as well as neutralize toxins. The grown scar tissue is compressing blood vessels, which results in the blood circulation disturbance.
The cold influence is a method of physical thermoregulation, during which at first the vessels are contracted and, if the influence continues, warm blood is supplied to the superficial vessels from internal organs, and then the blood flow of internal organs increases. Based on the results of Doppler sonography it is observed that the hepatic blood flow is increased, enzimatic activity is accelerated, metabolic reactions are enhanced.
Short-time general cold procedures are able to stimulate physicochemical or biochemical processes. Their favorable influence is shown in the cell structure, where the mediators of metabolic reactions are formed, the activity of oxidation and recuperation processes are enhanced.
Increase of blood flow to internal organs and change from cold to warmth are the mechanisms necessary for blood circulation system training. The blood which carries mediators of activation and oxygen considerably enhances antioxidant properties of parenchymatous organs, in particular, those of the liver, improving metabolic processes.
Under the influence of general cold procedures the tissue (cell) respiration of adipose tissues is activated, which is a very important factor in treatment of adipose infiltration and fatty degeneration of liver.
The liver diseases are characterized mainly by the following pathologic processes:
The mechanisms of cryotherapy influence the causative factors provoking the development of hepatic diseases and prevent many of those.
Multimodal therapy comprising treatment with hepatoprotectors, extracorporal detoxification methods and cryoinfluence encourages normalization of detoxification indices of the liver, reduction of cytolisis, mesenchymal inflammatory and cholestatic syndrome.
In patients with chronic liver diseases associated with hypersplenic phenomena it shows the increase in platelet number and in capillary blood flow, as well as decrease of regional vascular resistance, according to the data provided by rheohepatography and Doppler sonography.
Summing up, we can draw a conclusion that the aircryotherapy considerably increases microcirculation and improves trophic processes in the organs and tissues, influences the rheological blood properties, has pronounced immunomodulatory effect, encourages drastic activation of the body detoxification protective system with the liver as a key agent.
The variety of therapeutic action mechanisms provided by cryotherapy determines the specter of its clinical use: for treatment of chronic autoimmune hepatitis, chronic virus hepatitis, liver cirrhosis at the compensatory stages.
It is reccomanded general ACT session 120-180 sec. long., 15-20 sessions, once per day or every second day.
In traumatology the general ACT is recommended for any kind of trauma, injury, dislocation, tendovaginitis, fractures etc. The exposure is based on the condition with the number of sessions up to 3-5 per day until edema disappears and pain reduces, (see the chapter sports medicine).
It is believed that general ACT is very effective for rehabilitation of any abstinent states and homeostatic disorders: syndrome of chronic fatigue and after grave somatic, infectious and surgical diseases.
The most valuable experience of general extreme cryoprocedures was amassed for treatment of depressive states, elimination of any kind of stress syndrome. While undergoing cryotherapy, the sleep is improved, the irritability disappears, the mood becomes elated, propensity to take alcohol and sedatives anesthetic medicines decreases. Objectively, the tremor decreases and vegetative reactions (panhidrosis, dystonia and so on) subside. Practically all the patients experience gain in health, increase of efficiency and improvement of sexual life.
The rehabilitation regime of procedures and number of general ACT courses should be chosen individually. It is recommended to introduce the ACT technology with 20-25 procedures per course. Number of general ACT courses and intervals between them should be determined individually, according to the pacient's condition.
The ACT as a homeostasis protective and preventive method has no alternative in contemporary medicine. This fact was proved by the results of many investigations of orderly groups of children 5-7 years of age. The incidence of virus respiratory infections in the groups of children submitted to 15 sessions of general ACT decreased by 7 times compared with the control groups.
The intense homeostasis protective trace is kept within 6-12 months.
It is obvious that the maximum sanogenetic amplitude generated by cryotherapy is manifested directly in the skin and is most firmly fixed at tissular level. That's why the ACT in dermatology has a wide nosologic usage: from the treatment of acute and chronic inflammatory processes to the rehabilitation of secondary degenerative manifestations of skin diseases. In all cases the efficient combination of classic therapy with ACT provides possibility to get a considerable improvement or clinical recovery or prolongation of remission period for chronic skin diseases.
The methods of ACT used in dermatology are mainly standard depending upon localization or visceralisation of the process. The attending medical doctor may vary the frequency and number of procedures in the first place, but the temperature is less variable. The exposure temperature, especially in general ACT is relatively constant. It refers equally to autoimmune and granulomatous processes during skin diseases, such as psoriasis, neurodermatitis, seborrheic symptom complex, eczema, erythematosis, scleroderma, lichen ruber planus etc.
Cryomedical methods are very valuable and most often basic elements in the multimodal psoriasis therapy. Without coming into conflict with classical therapeutic methods, they considerably improve the prognosis of the treatment and modify the clinical course of psoriasis in any of its manifestations. Besides, when the most frequently used methods (such as PUVA-therapy, PUVA-therapy combined with retinoid therapy, selective phototherapy, retinoid therapy, immunosuppressant drugs and cytostatic agents-sandimmun, methotrexat, hormone therapy) prove to be ineffective or contraindicated, the cryomedical techniques remain almost unique methods giving possibility for the clinical recovery of psoriasis and long-time pronounced remission.
The ACT is mainly aimed at homeostasis modulation. That is the objective of general ACT is to modify the clinical course. At the first stage it means decreasing the amount of skin rash appeared during relapse and protracting the period of primary remission. The final goal of general ACT is to achieve stable remission or at least stable clinical and cosmetic comfort.
For general ACT the "golden standard" of psoriasis treatment on smooth skin is 3 courses, of 15-25 procedures each, received within 6-8 months.However, even one course of general ACT consisting of 25 procedures considerably improves the prognosis of psoriasis remission.
In case of common psoriasis the regime of general ACT session is 120-180 sec. For arthropatic psoriasis at the initial stage of treatment, especially during the aggravation stage, the ACT should be used more intense,the pacient's treatment shoud be addapted. In the first 10-15 days of treatment the general ACT may be prescribed up to 3-4 times per day, depending on the character of the clinical course. The procedure regime of general ACT for psoriatic arthropathy is 180 sec.
The first intense treatment course of arthropatic psoriasis may take up to 2-3 months. As a rule, after 10-15 days,the acute manifestations subside. It is possible to decrease the frequency of ACT procedures up to 1 time per day. After the first month of intense course the local ACT can be canceled, in accordance with the condition. General ACT should be taken every second day, at best, until a stable positive clinical effect is achieved, totally up to 3 months.
Together with general treatment, which aims at immunomodulation, immunosuppression, detoxification, antioxidant therapy and so on, there's also an absolute chance of complete correction and treatment of psoriasis concomitant diseases. First of all, it refers to the treatment of focal infection and inflammation areas, especially those of lymphoid tissues (tonsillitis, laryngitis, gastroenterocolitis, hepatitis, nephritis etc.). The attending medical doctor should fulfill these recommendations of ACT usage in psoriasis treatment.
Athopy is characterized by the predisposition of the human body for abrupt and unpredictable fluctuations of tissues and organs allergic reactivity under the influence of environmental factors, both biospheric and man-caused. The ecological and social conditions play determinative role in the evolution of athopy.
Athopic dermatitis as one of possible outcomes of athopy belongs to the most resistant skin diseases.
At present, general and local ACT being included into multimodal therapy is utterly beneficial for the patient. The possibility of using cryomedical techniques (local and general ACT, discrete layer-by-layer cryosurgery) allows the attending medical doctor to achieve the patient's clinical recovery with practically 100%-assurance and long term remission.
The general ACT is to be prescribed for athopic dermatitis treatment since the first day, as a rule, once per day. In exceptional cases during the first intense course of general ACT in can be taken every second day. Both the first course and the subsequent courses of general ACT consist of 30 procedures. The procedures for the repeated courses of general ACT are taken every second day. The intervals between courses of general ACT are of 1-2 months. The duration of general ACT session for is 180 sec.
Developing individual algorithms of multimodal athopic dermatitis therapy requires from the attending medical doctor the availability of utterly complete information about the state of the patent's body. This information will allow except prescribing standard basic DN therapy (antihistaminic medicines, immunomodulators, gastrointestinal protectors, detoxics, PUVA-therapy, retinoid therapy, diet etc.) to correct and treat concomitant pathologies purposefully and efficiently, including asanation of any centers of focal infection and invasion.
The general ACT for seborrheic symptom complex and rosacea is to be prescribed in regime of 120-180 sec. during 15-20 procedures. The purpose of general ACT is potentiation of multimodal therapy of seborrheic symptom complex with correction of all the parts of pathogenesis, based on its actual manifestations and concomitant diseases.
Nervous system diseases, both essential (infantile cerebral paralysis, disseminated sclerosis, myasthenia, migraine, parkinsonism etc.) and manifestations of systemic diseases or traumas (painful, spastic, paretic, reflex and neurodegenerative syndromes) take one of the first places and affect almost each person during his life.
Sanogenetic points of ACT attack are directed basically at the neuroreflectory system of the body. That's why the ACT use in the field of neuropathology is logically sound and highly efficient.
The general ACT may be prescribed for any nervous system disease, with sessions 120-180 sec. long, every day or every second day. The number of procedures and courses of general ACT are to be determined by an attending medical doctor according to the condition. In any case, the positive effects of patient's health is manifested towards the 10th procedure.
It is believed that the main mutually potentiating factors in the pathogenesis of osteochondrosis are muscles and vessels spasm, venous and lymphatic outflow disorders, arthrosis of articulations, changes in local metabolism, development of aseptic inflammation and pain syndrome,the aggravation of all above mainteining the pathological processes. The sanogenetic mechanisms and tissular effects of ACT are amazingly well-adapted for the control of the pathological processes characteristic of osteochondrosis. As a matter of fact that explains the highest efficiency of ACT for conservative treatment of degenerative pathology of the vertebral column.
The usage of ACT for the patients with diskogenic radiculopathy, including those with herniation of intervertebral disks, is efficient.
General ACT for any vertebral pathology is to be prescribed in accordance with the principles of treatment of musculoskeletal apparatus diseases in the maximum sanogenetic amplitude.
While treating the musculoskeletal system diseases (rheumatoid arthritis etc.) the tasks for multimodal therapy with ACT use may be divided into minimum and maximum.
Minimal task for an attending medical doctor includes the following objectives: to arrest inflammatory manifestations of arthritis, diminish drug load of basic and supporting therapy and achieve pronounced remission. The ACT parameters used are the same as for treating psoriatic arthropathy.
Apart from the above stated, the maximum task aims at restoring the function of the affected articulation to the maximum possible extent. For this the attending medical doctor should strive for the maximum sanogenetic amplitude of ACT, and therefore for the maximum regime of general ACT 180 sec long. The number and time of procedures depend on clinical expediency and curative gymnastics rate.
Of course, with already developed degenerative process in articulations (arthrosis) and concomitant osteoporosis, special machine-based curative gymnastics methods are needed, requiring special training in the clinics, which have material resources and experience in teaching conservative treatment of ankylosing forms of arthritis with ACT use.
The tendency towards increase of acute and chronic athletic injuries, both quantitative and qualitative, complicates the selection and training of top class sportsmen as well as intensification of training process. So nowadays the problem of arresting acute athletic injury, decreasing the risk of its long-term negative consequences, including that of specific chronic athletic injuries characteristic of certain sports remains quite pressing.
In sports medicine to stop the vicious circle of "pain - muscle spasm - pain" in case of acute athletic injury up to present the cold procedures were used including irrigation with chloroethane and other freons, ice applications, salt or gel cold accumulators (ice packs).
The ACT techniques open new wide horizons for sports medicine:
The requirement and insistent need for including ACT techniques in the sports industry are based on its high efficiency, as soon as ACT can never harm a sportsman in any kind of sport, but, on the contrary, it exercises positive influence on his athletic results.
One course of general ACT consisting of 15-25 sessions considerably increases the endurance of sportsmen. Optimization of the functional indices and efficiency - psychofunctional state, PWC-170, end-systolic dimension, rehabilitation time and so on-is comparable to the results of using biologically active stimulators and adaptogens and even is considerably higher in some respects. It should be stressed that the ACT unlike biochemical stimulation does not have long-time negative side after-effects.
First of all, general ACT equipment should be supplied to athletic training bases.
During the preparative period before competitions the general cryotherapy is prescribed in regime 120-180 sec., with a course at least 15-20 procedures (the course is repeated once in 6-8 months), once per day or every second day, 20-40 min. before training starts.
Immediately before competitions the cryosauna is prescribed in regime up to 180 sec., 20-60 min. before they start.
After the matches or competitions the cryosauna is prescribed in regime of 150 sec. with the aim to rehabilitate an athlete.
1 session 120-150 sec. long.
ACT is one of the most catching, efficient and prospective of physiotherapeutic methods to solve most pressing problems in the sphere of cosmetology:
Due to its general sanative effect the cryosauna gives a great synergetic support to all the cosmetology technologies, without exception. By means of microcirculation boosting, metabolic processes optimization, strengthening of skin turgor, general ACT gets a considerable improvement of exterior esthetic look of the skin, bringing it to the state of "milk and roses".
The ACT is prescribed in the regime 150-180 sec., at least 20 sessions for a course (not less than once in 6-12 months), once per day.
For problem skin, seborrheic symptom complex and rosacea (comedos, acne, dandruff, oily skin and so on ) the ACT is to be used in clinical variant.General ACT is prescribed in the regime 180 sec., with the course of at least 10-20 procedures, once per day or every other second day.
The cryosauna makes the body lose a lot of energy. Depending on the body weight and the temperature in the cabin, during one session,a patient can lose from 1,000 to 3,000 kcal. It has been observed that in certain cases the patients who undergo intensive general ACT lose 7 to 10 kg during the course made of 20-30 procedures.
With the purpose to lose weight ,the general ACT may be prescribed only in combination with rational and calorie-balanced diet. The cryosauna for cellulite and excessive weight control is to be prescribed in the regime 180 sec. per session, 20-30 sessions for a course, once per day. Number of courses should be determined by the attending medical doctor (but at least 2-4). Intervals between courses shall be no more than 1 month.